Viral infection is caused by viruses, which are a type of micro-organism. Viruses are made of DNA and RNA made up of long protein molecules, which are enclosed in a protein envelope known as capsid. Viruses rapidly multiply within living cells of animals, plants and microorganism such as bacteria and parasites. Viruses are known to cause several illnesses called viral infections. It is important to understand about viral infections, the classification of viruses, the diseases caused by them and the symptoms of common viral infection.
How Does Viral Infection Spread?
Viral infections are often contagious and easily spread through various routes. Spread of viral infection results from discharge of viruses through sputum, body secretions, gastric secretions like vomitus and feces as well as urine. The virus is transmitted from plants, animals and humans to another living organism through discharged skin, breathing, sputum, vomitus, touch and contaminated urine as well as feces. Viral infection is transmitted through contaminated clothes, paper towels, sexual contact and sharing of personal objects as well as used needles.
Viruses rapidly multiply within the cells, which results in viral infection. Viruses change the protein molecule configuration, which often follows recurrent infection and higher resistance. Viruses replicates within epithelial cells of nasopharynx, lymph nodes, conjunctiva, intestine and reticuloendothelial cells. Rhinovirus multiplies in nasal mucosa and cervical lymph node. Hepatitis virus is multiples in the intestine and liver.
Viral infections in the body or the attack of viruses can be eliminated by white blood cells. The increased number and higher efficiency of white blood cells help to fight the viral infection. The white blood cells help to produce antibodies against the viruses, which help to resolve the viral infection.
Most mild viral infections resolve on their own within a week. Viral infections, which appear in many types, can be managed effectively with medications and adequate rest. Medications that treat viral infections and vaccines that prevent them aim at improving the immunity of the person to fight against viruses.